An aquifer test (or a pumping test) is conducted to evaluate an aquifer by "stimulating" the aquifer through constant pumping, and observing the aquifer's "response" (drawdown) in observation wells. Aquifer testing is a common tool that hydrogeologists use to characterize a system of aquifers, aquitards and flow system boundaries
A slug test is a variation on the typical aquifer test where an instantaneous change (increase or decrease) is made, and the effects are observed in the same well. This is often used in geotechnical or engineering settings to get a quick estimate (minutes instead of days) of the aquifer properties immediately around the well.
Aquifer tests are typically interpreted by using an analytical model of aquifer flow (the most fundamental being the Theis solution) to match the data observed in the real world, then assuming that the parameters from the idealized model apply to the real-world aquifer. In more complex cases, a numerical model may be used to analyze the results of an aquifer test, but adding complexity does not ensure better results (see parsimony).

Aquifer testing differs from well testing in that the behaviour of the well is primarily of concern in the latter, while the characteristics of the aquifer are quantified in the former. Aquifer testing also often utilizes one or more monitoring wells, or piezometers ("point" observation wells). A monitoring well is simply a well which is not being pumped (but is used to monitor the hydraulic head in the aquifer). Typically monitoring and pumping wells are screened across the same aquifers


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Pore water pressure refers to the pressure of groundwater held within a soil or rock, in gaps between particles (pores). Pore water pressures in below the phreatic level (see alsogroundwater) are measured in piezometers. The vertical pore water pressure distribution in aquifers can generally be assumed to be close to hydrostatic

In the unsaturated zone the pore pressure is determined by capillarity and is also referred to as tension, suction or matric pressure. Pore water pressures under unsaturated conditions (vadose zone) are measured in with tensiometers. Tensiometers operate by allowing the pore water to come into equlibrium with a reference pressure indicator through a permeable ceramic cup placed in contact with the soil

Pore water pressure (sometimes abbreviated to pwp) is vital is calculating the stress state in the ground soil mechanics, from Terzaghi's expression for the effective stress of a soil 

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